Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was a Swiss psychologist and some-time student of Sigmund Freud. While Jung saw the revolutionary potential of Freud's theories, he eventually came to question Freud's rigid interpretation of psychological phenomena and the two bitterly broke off the relationship.
In contrast to Freud's discipline of psychoanalysis, Freud called his therapy analytical psychology. While both processes use dialogue, dream interpretation, and other tools to come to a deeper understanding of the patient's mental state, Jung made several critical changes to Freudian therapy:
Freud's therapist was an inscrutable master who sat in a superior position and held all the knowledge while the patient was assumed to have something wrong with them and was assigned a position of vulnerability. Jung put the therapist on a more equal relationship and even postulated that the therapist could not affect the patient unless the patient affected the therapist.
Jung's theories and therapy methods are far more useful and flexible for programs of self-improvement than Freud's, which rely exclusively on a fatalistic view of the unconscious and jump immediately to sexual repression theories that may have been better suited to the Victorian era than modern society.