- the study of the human mind,
- the mental characteristics of a person or group, or
- the mental or emotional factors influencing a situation or activity.
- Sigmund Freud is known as the father of psychoanalysis. Freud helped popularize the idea that there is a "subconscious" mind that influences or even controls conscious thoughts and behaviors.
- Carl Jung is known for altering and extending Freud's ideas into a field that has come to be called "analytical psychology". Jung popularized the idea of archetypes and complexes in psychology.